This article attempts to answer the question: "How does the universe work?" by examining the theories surrounding the big bang.
How does the universe work? This is a fairly broad question, and it could be relating to many things, as the universe is a big place, but I'm talking specifically about the way the universe moves as a whole.
The big bang, and the events surrounding it, black holes, gravity, and all of these sorts of questions. There is no actual proof one way or another of what happened before the big bang, or what will happen in the end, so it is hard to write a factual article on this subject, but I will do my best to explain the most popular theories.
The Popular Theories On The Universe
The most popular theory on what happened before the big bang is that nothing happened. There was a singularity of infinite density (or a super-massive black hole), and that time did not exist in this singularity.
For some reason which isn't given, the theory suggests that the universe began to expand and then exploded in a big bang, a huge nuclear release of energy.
Some say that this super-massive black hole in which time did not exist was very hot, which contradicts itself, because heat is caused by the vibration of molecules, requiring time.
Actually, a black hole is by definition at or close to absolute zero in temperature. This is because the electron stops revolving around the nucleus, and collapses, taking away 99.99% of the volume of the atom, but not the mass.
One possible reason that this singularity could have exploded is from the gravity of the entire universe pushing down on itself. This huge pressure could be enough to split the collapsed black hole atom, and cause a nuclear explosion, but if that is the case, then it would have happened straight away, as soon as the singularity formed.
There are a few problems with this theory. The first law of thermodynamics says that energy cannot be created or destroyed, it only changes form, therefore the energy (or mass) that caused the big bang always existed.
Gravity has no limits, and it is a constant force, so gravity always existed. This theory stops short of explaining why the big bang happened, and says that nothing happened before it, as time didn't exist.
The big freeze theory goes on to say that the universe will continue expanding away from the gravity of itself, and when the stars burn out, and collapse into cold black holes, these black holes will continue traveling away from each other, and eventually dissipate into massless particles.
Now this theory, (the most popular theory) ignores the most basic of scientific laws. What goes up must come down. Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Every effect has a cause, and that an object cannot continue to accelerate through space without a source of propulsion.
How Does The Universe Really Work?
The reason why the universe seems to be expanding faster is due to the propulsion caused by the stars burning. When the stars burn out and become black holes, there will only be the gravity of the rest of the universe pulling the universe back together, and with no source of propulsion pushing it out, it will collapse in a big crunch.
This is the big crunch theory, also known as the many worlds theory, and in my view it explains how the universe works a lot better.
It gives a reason why the big bang happened, the collapse of the previous universe. It doesn't ignore any fundamental scientific laws like gravity, and it just makes sense.
Some of the reasons why this theory has been rejected in the past by scientists are that God created the universe, and so it could not have always existed, and that there would be a ton of residual radiation if the universe had existed forever.
What is radiation? A form of energy, which can over time turn back into mass. There is not enough evidence to disprove this theory, and there is not enough evidence to disprove or prove any of these theories at all.
We are simply told that we should believe one theory over another even though there will probably never be a way to prove or disprove any of it. How does the universe work? Nobody really knows, but so long as science keeps an open mind, perhaps we will figure it out one day.