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because they did not simply transmit ancient knowledge, but developed it as well as created new ones.

of the subject by the Iranian mathematician Jamshid al-Kashani, who may have been the first to invent a calculating machine in the 15th century.

In the area of geometry, other mathematicians such as Ibn al-Haitham, al-Karkhi, Ibn Sina and al-Biruni had dealt with the most difficult problems of Greek geometry and solved many previously unsolved problems. They were able to solve the cubic equations by the intersection of conic as well as developing the spherical trigonometry. The Arabs also gave rise to discussions concerning natural philosophy including, the nature of the mathematical point, line and angle. So, equally, the Arabs were the founders of algebra (from the Arabic al-jabr, which signifies the restoration of something incomplete). The

As studied to this day, trigonometry was developed to its full extent by Arabs mathematicians, who, according to Carra de Vaux, were the inventors of plan and spherical trigonometry, which did not exist among the Greeks legacy. With the Arab mathematicians, the trigonometrical functions of sine, cosine, tangent and cotangent became more explicit. The word ‘sine’ is a direct translation of the Arabic jayb (curve). For the first time, the definition of the cotangent, expressed as a function of the sine and of the cosine, appeared in the translation of De motu stellarum of al-Battani (d. 929). In his book, al-Batani also introduced a new fundamental formula in spherical trigonometry, which has no equivalent in Ptolemy. He united the three sides and one angle of a spherical triangle.

Physics was also a third area of considerable achievement. In the ninth and tenth centuries, Aristotle’s Physics was translated into Arabic, studied and commented upon by Arabic philosophers including al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Bajja, Ibn Rusd and Ishaq ibn Hunayn, whose translation of the Physics is the only one to have been preserved. Latin translations were made from these Arabic versions. Ibn Bajja wrote a quite number of treatises, including his Commentary on the Physics, which contributed much to the development of the ideas about motion from Aristotle to Galilei as well as have influenced discussions in the Western Middle Ages. His views on the subjects of motion and place became also known to the medieval Jewish philosophers in Spain through translations of the work of Ibn Rusd into Hebrew.

of scientific endeavour, their science went into a state of decline and retrogression of scientific thought after the 11th century. In the period between the 12th and the 13th centuries, the chief activity of Western scholars was the translation of Arabic treatises into Latin. Constantine the African (d.1087), an important translator and an intermediary figure between the East and the West, translated a considerable number of Greco-Muslim works from Arabic into Latin. His efforts revealed that Arabic writings in the different disciplines were important because they contained enormous treasures of knowledge as well as the accumulated learning and experience of the p

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Comments (10)

Excellent

never knew Arab was so advanced in math and science. a very academic piece or writing you have here.

Nawaz

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Another great article, full of points of interest.

Thanks Jill for your kind comment and for your time reading my articles

This is such a brilliant piece of work.

Interesting read, thanks Abdel-moniem!

Thanks Kimberley for reading and commenting

awesome, votes

Thanks tamrh for your kind comment. appreciate

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